Tag Archives: Copyright

Redefining Copyright Law on Both Sides of the Atlantic

If there’s one thing that most creators can agree on, it’s that copyright law could use a spit shine for the digital age. For all the good its underlying principles do in terms of protecting original creative works, technology is fast outpacing its application.

United States - European Union map

United States – European Union map (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The practical ability of authorities to pursue piracy advocates and curb copyright infringement is limited by the outdated provisions of some areas of copyright law. Those laws were crafted for a time when consumers got online via a noisy modem and could barely download an album without dedicating a day to the activity, making illegal file sharing a major effort, and streaming unlicensed content completely out of the question.

Fast forward a little more than a decade and we have blazing fast connections with the bandwidth to access any form of content via all kinds of channels, legal or otherwise. Torrent sites and apps like Popcorn Time are the new challenge to rightholders, and it’s not a fight that’s easy to win with copyright enforcement as it stands.

English: Congressional portrait of Congressman...

English: Congressional portrait of Congressman Bob Goodlatte, 112th Congress. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Thanks to dedicated advocacy from creative rights advocates, US lawmakers know this is an issue and have been working hard to better understand how they can craft copyright law for the digital generation and beyond.

Few are more prominent in this policy making endeavor than the chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, Bob Goodlatte, whose name is now synonymous with the two-year-long review of US copyright law that condluded earlier this year.

This week Goodlatte was back in action, conducting a ‘listening tour‘ that stopped in both Silicon Valley and Los Angeles, with the aim of obtaining wider views on the myriad demands on US copyright law. Some excellent coverage of  the viewpoints heard can be found under the #CopyrightListening stream on Twitter.

A selection of those comments shows how important many creators view the modernization of copyright law:

Copyright Listening comments on Twitter

Over in Europe, things are even more complicated.

Flag of the European Union

Flag of the European Union (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


With 28 member states that make up the European Union (EU), copyright must cross more than just borders, working with multiple languages, varying cultural values, and different approaches to creativity. Nonetheless, the EU is planning a broad review of copyright in 2016, encompassing everything from a single digital market to more coordinated anti-piracy efforts.

The latter is particularly timely, as studies continue to show that piracy sites are significantly motivated to conduct their operations by the profits received from advertising and subscriptions. A key paragraph in the leaked correspondence on the EU’s plans makes specific mention of targeting this problem:

“[Anti-piracy measures] can deprive those engaging in commercial infringements of the revenue streams (for example from consumer payments and advertising) emanating from their illegal activities, and therefore act as a deterrent.”

All of this is music to the ears of rightsholders, who must often feel like they’re protecting their work with one hand tied behind the back.

Even when a creator knows where their work is being taken without permission and where to report it, the hit-and-miss complaint procedure and temporary nature of takedown notices makes for a time-consuming process. That’s time that most creative folks will tell you they’d rather spend, well, creating!

None of which is to say that copyright law is ineffective, but that its authority and enforcement measures must adapt as quickly as the technology that defines content distribution. Creators on both sides of the Atlantic will be hoping that their elected representatives can find a way to craft legislation that safeguards their work for generations to come.

Spain Is the Latest Nation to Make Progress Against Piracy

It’s always a rough ride for national governments trying to curb content piracy within their borders. Trying to promote legitimate streaming and download services while punishing illegitimate platforms is tough enough,m but the challenge is even harder when it comes to balancing punitive measures with education for end consumers.

For all the setbacks, though, 2015 is showing signs of success for anti-piracy initiatives at the national level. 

 

Earlier this year we were happy to report on Norway’s progress against piracy. Now, at the halfway point, it’s Spain’s turn to trumpet some positive results, as Spaniards turn towards legal channels, especially on the streaming side.

As a little background, as recently as last year, Spain was Western Europe’s black sheep of the family in terms of content theft. A report commissioned by the Coalition Against Piracy found that a massive 88 percent of all digital content accessed by Spanish consumers came was unlicensed. That was only a four percent rise on the previous year, demonstrating just how established and brazen these illegal players had become in Spanish society.

At an estimated cost approaching $2 billion lost to rights holders, Spain was clearly a piracy hotspot.

Thankfully, the country’s government took that slight to heart and enacted some serious legislation to tackle the problem, including greater attention to intellectual property complaints by the authorities and the potential to block Internet service providers (ISPs) who facilitate access to illegal sites.

These efforts began back in 2012, so there has been some overlap, but now the country’s Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sports is reporting signs of success at every level.

The highlights include:

  • 98% of all content removal requests, covering 247 sites, have been heeded, while 95% of 444 creator complaints against unlicensed content have been resolved satisfactorily,
  • Annual music revenues returned to positive growth in 2014, following a historic low the previous year, reaching $150 million dollars and posting a further 11% growth in year-on-year spending for the first half of 2015,
  • The number of pirate sites in the top 250 visited websites in Spain has been cut in half since 2012, partly due to ISP blocks but also as a result of changing consumer behavior.

As is believed to be the case in the many Scandinavian success stories, streaming music services are driving a return to legal consumption for many Spanish music fans. The movie industry will hope to see similar results in the coming year, as Netflix gets ready to launch in Spain and bring all the competitive attention that its presence in a market tends to catalyze.

In such a piracy black spot, this news represents a positive development that creators and rights holders will hope can move from short-term trend to long-term habit.

After all, the more nations that can successfully balance education with enforcement, while at the same time introducing the kind of legal content services that consumers enjoy, the more chance we have of seeing this national progress turn into a global phenomenon.

 

 

Influential Coalition Calls for Global IP Protection

A coalition of 85 think tanks, advocacy groups, and organizations has written to the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) to push home just how vital copyright is for vibrant economies around the world. The collective spans 51 countries and represents a significant request to develop intellectual property respect on a global scale.

The group, headed up by the Property Rights Alliance, reaffirmed their support for strong IP laws in a letter to the Director General of WIPO, Dr. Francis Gurry (pictured below, right, with actor Javier Bardem).

 

The communication covers eight key areas that the collective organizations believe cut to the heart of copyright’s social and economic benefits. These are:

  • Rule of Law, Property, and a Transparent Political Environment are the Foundation of Fair and Prosperous Societies
  • Intellectual Property Rights are Affirmed in International Treaties as a Human Right
  • Intellectual Property Rights Promote Free Speech and Expression
  • Intellectual Property Rights are Integral to Consumer Protection and Global Security
  • Strong Intellectual Property Rights and Contractual Freedom Promote Free and Competitive Markets
  • Intellectual Property Rights are Vital to Economic Competitiveness
  • Intellectual Property Rights Must Be Protected Through Effective IP Provisions in Trade Agreements
  • Intellectual Property Rights Must Be Respected and Protected on the Internet

As a set of guiding principles and touchstones for a stronger society, this is a compelling list. It’s all too easy to limit our thinking around copyright and intellectual property to piracy of music and movies, but the reality is that IP lies at the heart of our culture.

This is because strong copyright law drives creativity.Local access, global network

Knowing that what we create is protected by law and, accordingly, that we can leverage it for economic gain if a market exists, develops an environment in which creative minds can flourish.

They understand not only that their work will be respected, but that it will be protected so that they can build a career upon it, rather than just dabble as a hobbyist.

The letter echoes this sentiment in its conclusion:

“Advanced societies have long understood that by protecting the proprietary rights of artists, authors, entrepreneurs, innovators and inventors, they were promoting the greater public welfare. “

Urging the maintenance and development of intellectual property safeguards for the next generation, the letter neatly sums up the challenge facing creators on a global scale. With such rapid advancement of technology as we have seen in the last few decades, protecting the core concepts of IP becomes more important than ever.

Doing so on a global scale is even more challenging, but equally offers enormous potential for developing and developed markets alike.

The World Intellectual Property Organization is uniquely placed to guide treaty discussion and policy on the international stage, and it can aid creative minds everywhere by heeding the guidance laid out in the coalition’s letter.

 

Will International Appeal Give Apple Music the Edge Over Spotify?

Apple Music launched last week with less fanfare than expected, perhaps a victim of early holiday travel ahead of U.S. Independence Day.

Regardless, it is the long haul that matters most to Apple, as the world’s most valuable brand attempts to claw back the early-mover advantage that Swedish rival Spotify has enjoyed – and exploited  – to date.

Part of that strategy is likely to be played out on the global stage, as Apple’s new streaming service is available in significantly more markets than its peers. 

 

For a quick comparison, Apple Music has launched in more than 100 countries, which is almost twice as many as Spotify currently operates in. Furthermore, there are a number of territories in which Apple has launched its service where neither Spotify nor any other notable competitors currently operate.

Perhaps most importantly of all, these are not all smaller territories with limited market potential.

Among the territories in which Apple Music will beat Spotify to the punch are India, Russia, Japan, and  Nigeria. Between these four alone, the number of potential consumers could stretch into the billions, although activating them inevitably poses a major challenge given prevailing levels of piracy and, with the exception of Japan, less mature streaming markets. This provides a stark contrast to the reverse situation for Spotify, wherein the only markets it will now operate without competition from Apple Music are Turkey, Taiwan and smaller European nations like Liechtenstein and Andorra.

The importance of this advantage cannot be overstated. For many consumers in these countries, which potentially hold the key to the global expansion of streaming music, Apple’s platform will be their first experience of the phenomenon. Given the game-changing nature of digital streaming, not to mention the fact that many hold it up as the long-term solution to piracy, the potential for Apple Music to take giant strides into these territories is just as crucial as its need to build a customer base in the United States, Europe, and Australia.

In June, Spotify announced that it has passed the 20 million mark in terms of paid subscribers, while its overall active user base now numbers more than 75 million globally. Although that growth rate is increasing quickly, Apple Music is not competing from a standing start. The hundreds of millions of active iTunes accounts the Cupertino company has on file provide a solid base to convert to its new service, in addition to the Beats Music users that it hopes to bring across from the service it purchased last year.

All of this sets the stage for an intriguing evolution of the streaming music space. The market, although relatively young, has been waiting for some time for Apple to enter the fray and challenge Spotify’s dominance. It is clearly a battle that Apple intends to win, if the brand’s commitment to pay artists for all streams during its three-month free trial period is anything to go by. That will cost Apple a pretty penny, but the company clearly believes the long-term pay off in terms of brand awareness and the associated loyalty will be worth it.

For artists, the hope has to be that Apple can use its extensive resources to raise awareness of streaming music services and increase . It this really is the piracy killer that many believe it to be, making streaming subscriptions a truly global trend will have everyone involved in the music business singing Apple’s praises.

Sweden Suffers a 25% Revenue Hit Resulting from Piracy

The entertainment industry in Scandinavia has a tendency to occupy both ends of the consumption spectrum. In any one month you might see headlines in Norway proclaiming piracy dead, while the country’s Pirate Party campaigns for its own extreme take on a free and open Internet.

English: Snow Cover Across Scandinavia. In thi...

Snow Cover Across Scandinavia. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Meanwhile, in neighboring Sweden, music streaming on sites as wide-ranging as Spotify to illegal veterans The Pirate Bay shows the area as a home to both legitimate profit and piracy.

Thus, depending on your most recent reading material, the situation for copyright protection and creative rights in the region could swing from doom and gloom to profitable paradise in one sitting.

Unfortunately this piece will have to speak to the former, as Sweden’s movie and television industry this month confirmed that it loses an estimated $100 million annually from piracy in the country.

A Frosty Picture for Swedish Filmmakers

The number arises from a report conducted on Swedish TV and movie consumption in 2014, which included 280 million instances of illegal viewing. Commissioned by the country’s Film and TV Industry Cooperation Committee, the findings show that almost one-quarter of the nation’s market for these productions is being lost to consumption via unlicensed channels.

Inevitably, this leads to a frustrating creative environment for filmmakers and TV producers in Sweden. Citing the issues that providing a home to piracy sites causes for creators both at home and abroad, Per Strömbäck, the reporting organization’s expert on digital trade, says “the situation is not sustainable.”

His analysis is correct, and also the reason that copyright activists advocate so vociferously for stronger measures to protect creators globally. Any one country can give rise to piracy and cause significant problems for creators around the world. The 25% figure shows a major concern not just for Sweden, where the impact is of course most immediately felt, but beyond its borders when productions from other countries are viewed by its citizens, or by using services they host.

Fighting Back

The most disheartening part of this latest piracy setback is that Sweden is far from a hospitable place for pirates, at least in terms of upholding copyright law.

On the contrary, the country’s authorities have conducted several raids on piracy server sites this year already, as well as having a hand in bringing the co-founders of The Pirate Bay, which was born in Sweden, to justice.

This is also the nation that just two years ago levied a six-figure fine to an individual for sharing a film illegally. Suffice it to say, the proliferation of piracy in and around Scandinavian countries is not for the want of a strong stance against it by the relevant authorities.

It is the country’s commitment to technological advancement, however, that appears to have set it up as an inviting location for pirates to test their limits. After expanding broadband capabilities in the early days of the Internet, along with encouraging digital consumption of music, movies and television, it was perhaps inevitable that Sweden would become one of the front lines in the fight against piracy.

What is encouraging is the fact that this approach has also allowed legitimate streaming sites to flourish, with the convenience and affordability of what they offer proving a powerful competitor to the lure of piracy sites. The aforementioned headlines in Norway, while perhaps a little overblown, nonetheless prove that legal streaming can make inroads against illegal platforms, given enough time.

With a supportive government and a strong commitment to copyright law, there is every reason to believe that Sweden and its surrounding countries can become a model for entertainment industries around the world, rather than a black mark on the general European trend towards protecting creators.

U.S. Looks North of the Border for Anti-Piracy Inspiration

Hollywood is the envy of the world when it comes to making movies. In terms of protecting them once they are made, though? Well, we might need to start looking to the Great White North for our anti-piracy ideas, as a new program in Canada proves to be rather successful in curbing infringing activity.

 

After just a few months in operation, the new Canadian notice system is showing drops in piracy between 50-70 percent on some of the country’s most popular network providers. The system is rooted in Canada’s Copyright Modernization Act, through which ISPs can be required to deliver copyright infringement notices to customers when they themselves are made aware of infringing activity.

Closing the loop between the makers and monitors, the firm behind the initiative – and posting these impressive numbers – is Los Angeles-based rights corporation CEG TEK International.

The results in Canada are all the more surprising because of the mixed results typically associated with notice-based systems, whether they come via ISPs or directly from rights holders.

We all know the limitations of the U.S. DMCA system, whereby rights holders flag infringing content links to the sites that host them, only to see a new link pop up with the same content and the original poster rarely taken to task for the act.

Also common are systems based on infringement “strikes,” where an ISP does notify the infringing party and/or those who access the content. But a strike system is based on escalating warnings and has generally proved too lenient, both here at home, and abroad in countries like France and the UK. The French law in particular, known as HADOPI, was reversed in 2013 after its more severe punishments were poorly enforced and users frequently found a way around the system.

So what makes the Canadian notices system more successful than those that have gone before it?

It is still early days, but it seems the threat of financial penalties are a key motivator in changing behavior north of the border. More importantly, these are not the mind-boggling fees that we saw in the early days of piracy litigation. Rather they are more manageable fines for non-commercial copyright infringement, which give the recipient pause for thought without coming across as a draconian measure.

Even with the maximum cap at $5,000 for these fines, those going out to ISP customers are significantly less. Ranging from the low to mid-hundreds of dollars, the price is not financially crippling for the user but certainly send a message that, even when it can be easily accomplished, content theft remains a crime.

How “Going Global” in New Zealand Hurts Legitimate Internet Providers

Last month we examined the issue of Internet providers in New Zealand being warned by the country’s broadcasters to take action against subscribers who use virtual private networks (VPNs) to get around geographical licensing restrictions. With these services, viewers around the country can access and view website content that might otherwise be restricted to other nations or regions.

Although this can sound harmless enough on the surface, when it comes to valuable content like movies, television, and music, there’s every chance it could mean the difference between business and bankruptcy for legitimate Internet providers in New Zealand.

 

Once you delve deeper it becomes clear just how intentional this practice is at a business level, not one driven by individual users. Several non-facilities based telecommunications companies – i.e. those with no central offices to pay for or networks to maintain – from New Zealand are engaged in the resale of broadband connections to residential subscribers. On its own this is of course a legitimate business model, much in the same way that non-network mobile providers in the U.S. make use of the main carrier networks to repackage and sell cellular services.

It’s the next step that has the major telecoms providers and rights holders up in arms, and with good reason.  As this article on Tech Policy Daily explains, the resellers are attempting to gain market share by bundling a DNS geo-block defeating mechanism into their broadband services. Essentially, they’re saying to customers that they can provide them with a way around those pesky viewing barriers, or “legal regional licensing agreements” to those of us who have some degree of respect for creative rights and control of content.

Where this particular article departs from fact is in suggesting that there is any argument that these non-facilities based resellers are promoting. One look at the marketing literature from these companies, or even the comments from those in charge, shows exactly where their intentions lie.

Take Slingshot, for example, who make no bones about their “Global Mode” sales pitch:

Slingshot Global Mode Plan

This marketing push is enough to assure customers that they will gain access to overseas content services such as Netflix simply by signing up with services like Slingshot.

What’s more, the offering is pitched in such a way that it makes it sound like this level of access is not only legitimate, but something they should expect from all providers. When those who have invested in networks, offices, and content licensing agreements specific to their country fail to offer such a global service, it perversely reflects badly on the legitimate provider, rather than the likes of Slingshot who are skirting the rules and riding on the infrastructure of other businesses.

The bottom line is that established and respected service providers spend more than US $300 million every year for rights to the content they bring to New Zealand. Add this to the cost of providing a variety of traditional and Internet-based services to customers, with all the infrastructure and capital costs that brings, and it’s a significant investment in bringing that content to the country in the many ways viewers and listeners want to consume it.

While there may be some lag between release windows, the fact is that legitimate services are constantly evolving to meet customer demand and the licensing agreements in place ensure that creators are rewarded for each new market in which their work succeeds. This is the basis for continued revenue to the most in-demand creative talent, wherever it is in the world, and a keystone incentive to keep production flowing. Free riders, in this case the businesses who trade on the back of other providers’ networks and promote unlicensed content as a competitive advantage, only detract from that carefully constructed ecosystem.

An important point to note is that this is a battle against unfair business practices, not taking legal action against individual consumers who pursue their own viewing practices. John Fellet, CEO of Sky New Zealand, confirms this point, explaining that “this is a business-to-business issue; it’s about creating a fair playing field.”

When resellers are able to contribute little but gain a lot in terms of market share, it reduces the incentive for those providers with a major capital investment in the country, like Sky New Zealand and Telecom New Zealand, to continue bringing licensed programming from overseas and, more crucially, investing in home-grown creative talent. In that scenario the large American services like Netflix have an easier time dominating, even if they their revenue streams are diluted by geo-dodging, as they cut by far the biggest slice of the global pie.

In the long term this inhibits innovation and limits production diversity, which is exactly what customers want, and how free-riding resellers play on their trust to promote access to content that hasn’t been paid for.

House of Cards Piracy Shows Why Legal Global Streaming Works

It’s a universal truth that where demand goes unsatisfied, piracy quickly follows. For the creative industries, there are high hopes that an equally predictable trend will unfold: where legal streaming services roll out, piracy quickly tails off.

It’s been a theme that characterized much of February for us, from the news that Norway, where streaming music services dominate, has seen a dramatic reduction in piracy, to the post-Oscars analysis of where Academy Award winning titles are available and how piracy spikes if they’re not.

House of Cards piracy is the latest example to underline this phenomenon, as season 3 of the Netflix original series prompted a surge in social media and viewing activity in markets where the platform is active, and soaring piracy levels in countries where it isn’t.

 

Season 3 was only released last Friday, yet unlicensed viewing in countries around the world already numbers in the six figures, with China heading the illegal access list at more then 60,000 downloads. That doesn’t begin to factor in a number of other methods of finding the program without paying for the privilege, as technology like VPN access helps viewers to bypass geographical restrictions and log in to the same version of Netflix made available to U.S. consumers.

Although there is also illegal access in countries where Netflix does operate successfully, not least the U.S. and United Kingdom, the general consensus is that any market will have some amount of residual piracy.

While that element needs to be tackled with more familiar education and enforcement tactics, promoting legal access channels and penalizing where pirates knowingly disregard them, the most promising new prong in fighting copyright infringement is rolling out legitimate streaming services in markets where they don’t currently operate.

In the case of House of Cards this would of course be Netflix, first and foremost, although it isn’t hard to imagine a scenario in which the company licenses such a popular title to another service if it can’t get into the market itself. China springs to mind in the first instance, given the censorship issues and other red tape for American companies operating in the country, but there are enough other international markets in which Netflix isn’t being compensated at all for its hit production and would surely love to bridge the gap with licensing income.

Continent of Australia from space. Australia i...

Continent of Australia (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Meanwhile it’s Australia that provides the most immediate case study of how introducing a legal viewing alternative will impact piracy levels. Frequently found atop the illegal viewing figures despite its relatively small consumer base, the country saw House of Cards piracy almost on a par with China.

Here, however, Netflix seems all set to launch this month, giving consumers almost no time to wait for the popular title and everything else that the company’s expansive archives will bring.

If Australians decide that convenience (and, we would hope, copyright) trump the awkward access of covert connections and malware-plagued piracy sites, then piracy levels should decline.  The experiment is ongoing, but the early results are promising that legitimate digital channels can connect viewers around the world to content they love, without having to resort to illicit and unreliable access points to get it.

 

Europe’s Safer Internet Day Casts a Broad Net Online

Yesterday marked the 11th annual Safer Internet Day, an initiative introduced by the European Commission back in 2004 to promote “a better Internet.”

Emphasizing more responsible use of online and mobile technology, especially among younger generations, the event enters its second decade in a significantly different tech world than existed at its inception. Faster connections and the rapid adoption of mobile devices means that far more people around the world are now connected and spending more time online than ever before.

Safer Internet Day

Against that unrelenting march of technology, the European Commission has continued to promote activities around SID and broaden the initiative’s appeal around the world.

 

A Broad Net for Online Safety

With its focus on young people and the way they interact with technology, the European Commission clearly sees early education as the most effective way to encourage better behavior online.

Covering everything from respect for others and understanding online dangers to malware and ID theft, the initiative quickly spread around the world thanks to activities like the SID blogathon and universal media interest in the subject. Even complex, constantly morphing challenges like illicit sites and the fraudulent tactics they use to make money fall within the remit of creating a better and safer Internet, though such issues will undoubtedly require more than isolated awareness programs to significantly reduce their threat.

Trustworthy Accountability Group logoCoincidentally, Safer Internet Day aligned with the announcement of a major initiative against malware and fraudulent online advertising in the United States.

The TAG program, entitled the Brand Integrity Program Against Piracy, takes aim at one of the major concerns for brand advertisers and content creators alike: the funding of sites that engage in copyright infringement  by advertising networks unable to control where their ad inventory ends up.

Although it might seem like the world’s biggest brands should have the resources to control exactly where their ads appear and, accordingly, which sites they support, the reality is that online advertising has been something of a crapshoot until now. Advertisers buy up space across broad networks that place their messages on a variety of sites, many perfectly legitimate but some with less honest business models. The latter often involves making content available without its creator’s approval, in a bid to attract users whose pageviews make the site money via the adverts.

Clearly, this is no good for either the brands, who want to maintain a trustworthy reputation, or the creators whose work is being taken as bait by such sites. Where Safer Internet Day intersects with this issue is the types of ads being displayed and the potential dangers that they can transmit. If it’s reputable brands being displayed by the rogue site, the user may feel more comfortable using it even though its content is fraudulently obtained. If that increased trust results in a click, not only does the site benefit from extra ad revenue, the user could easily be railroaded into downloading malware that damages their device, or adware that tracks their online activity for future ad delivery.

In either case, this is validation of piracy and privacy invasions by unintentional association. 

Even when household name brands aren’t involved, the content of the ads placed can be questionable, such as those that promote gambling or pornography, which clearly aligns with the European Commission’s goal to educate users about the dangers such sites pose.

Between the EC’s awareness drive and the U.S. ad industry’s new commitment to weed out , Safer Internet Day in 2015 becomes a rallying point for anyone seeking to improve the online experience of consumers and creators alike.

As Legal Viewing Options Grow Globally, Excuses for Piracy Recede

Following a study by KMPG earlier this year that showed the vast majority of popular or critically-acclaimed movies are legally available online in the U.S., the same research criteria have been applied across the Atlantic.

The results? Very similar availability and an ever-expanding universe of outstanding entertainment for British viewers, all instantly accessible via legitimate online services.

Here are some of the report’s headlines for the UK market:

  • All of the top 100 movies at the 2012 box office are offered on at least one of the services;
  • 96% of the country’s all time box office hits are offered on at least one of the services;
  • 90% of independent films were available on at least one service;
  • 75% of top UK 100 TV shows were also available on at least one service.

In actual fact many of the numbers above could be higher as the study doesn’t take into account options like time-shifted viewing available from cable providers or similar services that act as content recorders.

All in all, the findings on both sides of the Atlantic mirror one another and encompass a trend that is inevitably going global. Thousands of services are available across Europe and the incentive for the most successful of them to expand into other international markets is clear. Legal options for the most in-demand and culturally valuable entertainment are coming online all the time, neutralizing one of the last lingering excuses for those who typically take it for free.

The hope for creative industries around the world will be that the rising popularity of legal online entertainment, which provide quick, easy access and improve the consumer’s experience compared to illegal options, will persuade those in more notorious markets to move away from piracy.

If the success of legitimate channels of content consumption continues to grow by turning torrents and illegal downloads into real revenue, the investment in that content and those who create it will be all the greater.